Last updated 15/04/2015
Internalisation of external costs - Instruments - Policy Paper
External costs are responsible for numerous malfunctions in the transport sector. The consequences are familiar - traffic congestion, delays, accidents, high levels of pollution etc. In spite of its environmental advantages, railways have suffered from competition with other modes of transport. This disadvantage has led to a rise in budget deficits. This document makes recommendations intended to increase the competitiveness of the railways and presents ways and means to achieve this goal.
Also available in French and German
87 pages,